1. Nephrotic syndrome
  2. End stage kidney disease
  3. Acute renal failure
  4. Chronic renal failure
  5. Polycystic kidney disease

1.  Nephrotic syndrome:

Nephrotic syndrome is a group of symptoms that indicate your kidneys are not working properly.

  • Too much protein in your urine, called proteinuria
  • low levels of a protein called albumin in your blood, called hypoalbuminemia
  • swelling in parts of your body, called edema
  • high levels of cholesterol and other lipids (fats) in your blood, called hyperlipidemia

Signs and symptoms:

  • puffy eyelids and swelling in the legs, ankles, feet, lower abdomen, or other parts of your body
  • foamy urine
  • weight gain due to retaining too much fluid
  • tiredness
  • loss of appetite


Many disorders can cause nephrotic syndrome, including diseases that affect only the kidneys and diseases that affect many parts of the body, such as diabetes and lupus.


Treatment for nephrotic syndrome involves treating any medical condition that might be causing your nephrotic syndrome. Your doctor might also recommend medications and changes in your diet to help control your signs and symptoms or treat complications of nephrotic syndrome.

Dietary management:

  • Be mindful of protein intake. The recommended protein intake for nephrotic syndrome is 1 gram (g) per kilogram of body weight per day, which equals 0.45 g per pound per day. However, this amount may vary based on the current health of your kidneys.
  • Limit sodium intake to 400 milligrams (mg) per meal (150 mg per snack), says Epicure Kidney International (NKI). Read food labels and check sodium content before purchasing food items.
  • Limit or avoid using seasonings with “salt” in the name. These have a higher salt content than herbs and spices. If a recipe calls for garlic salt, substitute with fresh garlic or garlic powder.
  • Cook with healthy oils such as olive or coconut oil.
  • Remove salt from the dinner table.
  • Choose fresh vegetables or canned vegetables with no added sodium or low sodium to reduce your sodium intake.

2.  End stage kidney disease:

ESRD occurs when the kidneys are no longer able to work at a level needed for day-to-day life. The most common causes of ESRD in the United States are diabetes and high blood pressure. These conditions can affect your kidneys. ESRD almost always comes after chronic kidney disease.


The kidneys remove waste and excess water from the body. ESRD occurs when the kidneys are no longer able to work at a level needed for day-to-day life. The most common causes of ESRD in the United States are diabetes and high blood pressure. These conditions can affect your kidneys almost always comes after chronic kidney disease. The kidneys may slowly stop working during a period of 10 to 20 years before end-stage disease results.


Common symptoms may include:

  • General ill feeling and fatigue
  • Itching (pruritus) and dry skin
  • Headache
  • Weight loss without trying
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea

Other symptoms may include:

  • Abnormally dark or light skin
  • Nail changes
  • Bone pain
  • Drowsiness and confusion
  • Problems concentrating or thinking
  • Numbness in the hands, feet, or other areas
  • Muscle twitching or cramps
  • Breath odor


ESRD may need to be treated with dialysis or kidney transplant. You may need to stay on a special diet or take medicines to help your body work well.


Dialysis does some of the job of the kidneys when they stop working well.

Dialysis can:

  • Remove extra salt, water, and waste products so they do not build up in your body
  • Keep safe levels of minerals and vitamins in your body
  • Help control blood pressure
  • Help the body make red blood cells

Dietary management:

Choose low-potassium fruits and vegetables. These include things like grapes, pineapple, lettuce, green beans, and cucumber. Choose low-potassium foods such as pasta, noodles, rice, tortillas, and bagels. And avoid high-potassium foods, including things like milk, bananas, oranges, spinach, tomatoes, and broccoli.

3.  Acute renal failure:

Acute kidney injury (AKI), also known as acute renal failure (ARF), is a sudden episode of kidney failure or kidney damage that happens within a few hours or a few days. AKI causes a build-up of waste products in your blood and makes it hard for your kidneys to keep the right balance of fluid in your body. AKI can also affect other organs such as the brain, heart, and lungs. Acute kidney injury is common in patients who are in the hospital, in intensive care units, and especially in older adults.

Signs and symptoms:

Signs and symptoms of acute kidney injury differ depending on the cause and may include:

  • Too little urine leaving the body
  • Swelling in legs, ankles, and around the eye
  • Fatigue or tiredness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Confusion
  • Nausea
  • Seizures or coma in severe cases
  • Chest pain or pressure
  • In some cases, AKI causes no symptoms and is only found through other tests done by your healthcare provider.


Acute kidney injury can have many different causes.  AKI can be caused by the following:

  • Decreased blood flow
  • Direct Damage to the Kidneys
  • Blockage of the urinary tract


Treatment for AKI usually requires you to stay in a hospital. Most people with acute kidney injury are already in the hospital for another reason.  How long you will stay in the hospital depends on the cause of your AKI and how quickly your kidneys recover. In more serious cases, dialysis may be needed to help replace kidney function until your kidneys recover. The main goal of your healthcare provider is to treat what is causing your acute kidney injury. Your healthcare provider will work to treat all of your symptoms and complications until your kidneys recover.

Dietary management:

A renal diet is one that is low in sodium, phosphorous, and protein. A renal diet also emphasizes the importance of consuming high-quality protein and usually limiting fluids. Some patients may also need to limit potassium and calcium.

4. Chronic renal failure:

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a long-term condition where the kidneys do not work as well as they should. It's a common condition often associated with getting older. It can affect anyone, but it's more common in people who are black or of south Asian origin.


There are usually no symptoms of kidney disease in the early stages. It may only be diagnosed if you have a blood or urine test for another reason and the results show a possible problem with your kidneys.

At a more advanced stage, symptoms can include:

  • Tiredness
  • swollen ankles, feet or hands
  • shortness of breath
  • feeling sick
  • blood in your pee (urine)


Chronic kidney disease is usually caused by other conditions that put a strain on the kidneys. Often, it's the result of a combination of different problems.

CKD can be caused by:

  • high blood pressure
  • diabetes – too much glucose in your blood can damage the tiny filters in the kidneys
  • high cholesterol – this can cause a build-up of fatty deposits in the blood vessels supplying your kidneys, which can make it harder for them to work properly
  • kidney infections
  • glomerulonephritis – kidney inflammation


There is no cure for CKD, but treatment can help relieve the symptoms and stop it getting worse. Your treatment will depend on how severe your condition is.

The main treatments are:

  • lifestyle changes to help you remain as healthy as possible
  • medicine to control associated problems such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol
  • dialysis – treatment to replicate some of the kidney's functions; this may be necessary in advanced CKD
  • kidney transplant – this may also be necessary in advanced CKD

Dietary management:

You may need to make changes to your diet when you have chronic kidney disease (CKD). These changes may include limiting fluids, eating a low-protein diet, limiting salt, potassium, phosphorous, and other electrolytes, and getting enough calories if you are losing weight.

5. Polycystic kidney disease:

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a genetic disorder that causes many fluid-filled cysts to grow in your kidneys. Unlike the usually harmless simple kidney cysts that can form in the kidneys later in life, PKD cysts can change the shape of your kidneys, including making them much larger.

Signs and symptoms:

The signs and symptoms of ADPKD, such as pain, high blood pressure, and kidney failure, are also PKD complications. In many cases, ADPKD does not cause signs or symptoms until your kidney cysts are a half inch or larger in size.


A gene mutation, or defect, causes PKD. In most PKD cases, a child got the gene mutation from a parent. In a small number of PKD cases, the gene mutation developed on its own, without either parent carrying a copy of the mutated gene. This type of mutation is called “spontaneous.” Read more about genes and genetic conditions.


dialysis, where a machine replicate some of your kidneys' functions. A kidney transplant, where a healthy kidney is removed from a living or recently deceased donor and implanted into someone with kidney failure.

Dietary management:

PKD may require diet changes to help lower your blood pressure by limiting how much sodium (salt) you eat. Staying hydrated by drinking the right amount of fluid may help slow PKD's progress toward kidney failure. Eating high-quality protein and smaller portions of protein also can help protect the kidneys

MNT for diabetes and kidney disease:

If you have diabetes and CKD, you are definitely not alone about 1 in 3 American adults with diabetes also has CKD. The right diet helps your body function at its best, but figuring out what to eat can be a major challenge. What is good for you on one meal plan may not be good on the other.

Foods to eat:

  • Fruits: berries, grapes, cherries, apples, plums.
  • Veggies: cauliflower, onions, eggplant, turnips.
  • Proteins: lean meats (poultry, fish), eggs, unsalted seafood.
  • Carbs: white bread, bagels, sandwich buns, unsalted crackers, pasta.
  • Drinks: water, clear diet sodas, unsweetened tea
  • Carbohydrates: Normal
  • Proteins: normal
  • Fats: unsaturated fats, healthy fat
  • Normal fluid intake: 700 ml
  • Meet with a registered dietitian who is trained in both diabetes and CKD nutrition. Together you will create a diet plan to keep blood sugar levels steady and reduce how much waste and fluid your kidneys have to handle.


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